3 scientists awarded chemistry Nobel Prize

3 scientists awarded chemistry Nobel Prize

Sir Gregory Winter, another chemistry Nobel victor, is a member of the UK-Israel Science Council, which brings people from both countries together.

Frances Arnold and George Smith of the USA and Gregory Winter of the United Kingdom won the 2018 prize for work that showed scientists and drug developers how to force proteins to evolve. She's a researcher at Caltech in Pasadena, Calif.

Arnold graduated from the University in 1979 with a bachelor of science in engineering degree in mechanical and aerospace engineering.

The victor of the Nobel Peace Prize is to be announced on Friday. "Professor Arnold's scientific excellence and intellectual leadership exemplify values essential to our University, and all of us at Princeton are celebrating her receipt of this well-deserved honor".

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry Wednesday to scientists making advances in cancer research.

Frances Arnold performed the first "directed evolution" of enzymes, which are proteins that catalyse chemical reactions.

Venki Ramakrishnan said: "Thanks to Greg Winter's pioneering research into monoclonal antibodies at the MRC's Laboratory of Molecular Biology, people who have breast cancer, arthritis, asthma and leukaemia the world over are already benefiting from new drugs, with many more in development".

Researchers have learned to use the process of evolution to develop new forms of molecules that are used to manufacture everything from biofuels to pharmaceuticals, such as Humira, which sold about $18 billion previous year.

"The discoveries by George Smith and Greg Winter are having an enormous impact, particularly on medicine with antibody drugs that have fewer side effects and are more efficient", Goran Hansson, the head of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, told reporters.

"You have to think it's insane", she said. "She's very creative, very bright - she's unbelievable".

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"Her work is incredible", Matt Hartings, an associate chemistry professor at American University, told The Associated Press.

"We're going to give it away, I think".

To date 107 affiliates of the University of Cambridge have been awarded the Nobel Prize since 1904 - spanning every category: 32 in Physics, 26 in Medicine, 25 in Chemistry, 11 in Economics, three in Literature and two in Peace.

Arnold focused on solar energy research while she was an undergraduate at Princeton, and shifted to biochemistry in graduate school.

The scientists have pioneered techniques in a process known as "directed evolution", which creates new proteins by using processes which simulate natural selection. "There are also enzymes that can create new types of biofuels or that catalyze the formation of building blocks for new medicines", said the chairman of the Nobel chemistry committee, Claes Gustafsson. Others now commonly use it to create new enzymes.

Arnold first tested her method of what has been called "directed evolution" in 1993.

For thousands of years, humans have been selectively breeding crops and animals to tinker with the genetic makeup of their future generations in humankind's favor.

"What I do is use that algorithm to build new biological things", she said. "It is a testament to her to her vision, conviction and perseverance that she was able to ignore these criticisms".

Immunologist Professor Dan Davies, from the University of Manchester, said: "This is thrilling". "Her work is incredible".

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